The research papers listed below are referred to in the information on this site:
Agur WI & others The long-term effectiveness of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training: eight-year follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):985-90
Aksac B & others Biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises for the rehabilitation of urinary stress incontinence. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003;56(1):23-7. Epub 2003 Jul 14.
Altman D & others Risk of urinary incontinence after childbirth: a 10-year prospective cohort study. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct; 108(4):873-8
Anderson RU1, Harvey RH, Wise D, Nevin Smith J, Nathanson BH, Sawyer T Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Mar;40(1):45-52. doi: 10.1007/s10484-015-9273-1.
Appell RA Electrical stimulation for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Urology. 1998 Feb;51(2A Suppl):24-6.
Arvonen T & others Effectiveness of two conservative modes of physical therapy in women with urinary stress incontinence. Neurourol Urodyn. 2001;20(5):591-9.
Aukee P & others The effect of home biofeedback training on stress incontinence. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Oct;83(10):973-7.
Beji NK & others The effect of pelvic floor training on sexual function of treated patients. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2003 Oct;14(4):234-8; discussion 238. Epub 2003 Aug 27.
Bo K & others
Randomized controlled trial on the effect of pelvic floor muscle training on quality of life and sexual problems in genuine stress incontinent women.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 Jul;79(7):598-603
Bo, K. Can pelvic floor muscle training prevent and treat pelvic organ prolapse?). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(3):263-8.
Bø, Kari Urinary Incontinence, Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, Exercise and Sport. Sports ed. 2004; 34(7): 451-64.
Bo, K. and others Effect of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training on labor and birth. Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Jun; 113(6): 1279-84.
Brækken IH and others Pelvic floor muscle training reverse pelvic organ prolapse and reduce prolapse symptoms? An assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]
Brown WJ & Miller YD. Too wet to exercise? Leaking urine as a barrier to physical activity in women. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2002;4(4):373-378
Bump RC & others Assessment of Kegel pelvic muscle exercise performance after brief verbal instruction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Aug;165(2):322-7
Chiarelli P & Brown W. Leaking urine in Australian women: prevalence and associated conditions. Women and Health. 1999;29(1):1-12
Chiarioni G, Nardo A, Vantini I, Romito A, Whitehead WE. Biofeedback is superior to electrogalvanic stimulation and massage for treatment of levator ani syndrome. Gastroenterology. 2010 Apr;138(4):1321-9. Epub 2010 Jan 4.
de Bernardes NO and others Use of intravaginal electrical stimulation for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain: a randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial. J Reprod Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):19-24.
Delgado D & Drake M A randomised controlled trial of the PelvicToner Device in female stress urinary incontinence British Journal of Urology International. Jan 2010
Dornan P Incontinence-an aggressive approach to treatment: a case series J Sci Med Sport. 2005 Dec;8(4):458-62
Dumoulin C & Hay-Smith J Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Sys Revi 2010 Jan 20;(1) CD005654
Eyjólfsdóttir H, Ragnarsdóttir M, Geirsson G. [Pelvic floor muscle training with and without functional electrical stimulation as treatment for stress urinary incontinence] [Article in Icelandic] Laeknabladid. 2009 Sep;95(9):575-80; quiz 581.
Farrell SA & others Parturition and urinary incontinence in primiparas. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Mar;97(3):350-6
Glavind K. Conservative treatment of stress incontinence with Geisha balls. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2001;12(4):223-4; discussion 224-5
Grodstein F & others Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Aug;189(2):428-34
Handa VL and others Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 May;111(5):1045-52
Hay-Smith EJC & others Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1.
Jonasson A & others Testing and training of the pelvic floor muscles after childbirth. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1989;68(4):301-4.
Latthe PM & others Nonsurgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI): grading of evidence in systematic reviews. BJOG. 2008 Mar;115(4):435-44.
Lee IS & others Pelvic floor muscle exercise by biofeedback and electrical stimulation to reinforce the pelvic floor muscle after normal delivery. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2006 Dec;36(8):1374-80.
Lowenstein L and others Can stronger pelvic muscle floor improve sexual function? Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2010 May;21(5):553-6. Epub 2010 Jan 20.
MacInnes CL Why women leave therapy for stress incontinence. Nurs Times. 2008 Oct 14-20;104(41):50-3.
Mariotti, G & others Early recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy using early pelvic floor electrical stimulation and biofeedback associated treatment. Journal of Urology, 2009 April:
Moen MD & others Pelvic floor muscle function in women presenting with pelvic floor disorders Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009 Jul;20(7):843-6. Epub 2009 Mar 10.
Moore KN & others Return to continence after radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized trial of verbal and written instructions versus therapist-directed pelvic floor muscle therapy. Urology. 2008 Dec;72(6):1280-6.
Moreno AL & others Urodynamic alterations after pelvic floor exercises for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2004;31(3):194-6.
Morkved S & others Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training in prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a one-year follow up. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Aug 2000
Murina F & others The use of amielle vaginal trainers as adjuvant in the treatment of vestibulodynia: an observational multicentric study. Medscape J Med. 2008 Jan 30;10(1):23.
Nygaard I & others Prevalence of Symptomatic Pelvic Floor Disorders in US Women JAMA, 2008; 300 (11):1311-1316.
Pager CK & others Long-term outcomes of pelvic floor exercise and biofeedback treatment for patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002 Aug;45(8):997-1003.
Parkkinen A & others Physiotherapy for female stress urinary incontinence: individual therapy at theoutpatient clinic versus home-based pelvic floor training: a 5-year follow-upstudy. Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23(7):643-8.
Persson J & others Obstetric risk factors for stress urinary incontinence: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Sep;96(3):440-5.
Pitts MK & others Prevalence and correlates of three types of pelvic pain in a nationally representative sample of Australian women. Med J Aust. 2008 Aug 4;189(3):138-43
Rortveit G & others Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 6;348(10):900-7
Salvesen KA & others Randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. BMJ. 2004 Aug 14;329(7462):378-80. Epub 2004 Jul 14.
Sampselle CM & others Effect of pelvic muscle exercise on transient incontinence during pregnancy and after birth. Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;91(3):406-12.
Sand PK & others Pelvic floor electrical stimulation in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jul;173(1):72-9.
Sapsford RR, Richardson CA, Maher CF, Hodges PW Pelvic floor muscle activity in different sitting postures in continent and incontinent women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Sep;89(9):1741-7.
Sarma S, Ying T, Moore KH. Long-term vaginal ring pessary use: discontinuation rates and adverse events. BJOG. 2009 Dec;116(13):1715-21.
Schytt E & others Symptoms of stress incontinence 1 year after childbirth: prevalence and predictors in a national Swedish sample. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Oct;83(10):928-36.
Seo JT & others A randomized prospective study comparing new vaginal cone and FES-Biofeedback. Yonsei Med J. 2004 Oct 31;45(5):879-84
Sloots K, Bartlett L. Practical strategies for treating postsurgical bowel dysfunction. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009 Sep-Oct;36(5):522-7.
Smith DB & others A self-directed home biofeedback system for women with symptoms of stress, urge,and mixed incontinence. J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2000 Jul;27(4):240-6.
Smith KM & others Amielle vaginal trainers-a patient evaluation. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Mar;18(2):146-7.
Snider T Pelvic floor training, re-education relieves CPPS. Urology Times Oct 2000, Vol. 28 Issue 10, p30
Talasz H and others Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle function in a random group of adult women in Austria. In Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008 Jan; 19(1): 131-5
Viktrup L The risk of lower urinary tract symptoms five years after the first delivery. Neurourol Urodynamics 2002 ;21(1): 2-29
Viktrup L & others [Urinary incontinence during 12 years after delivery] [Article in Danish] Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Oct 19;171(43):3073-7.
Walsh T & others Don't hide! Fix this floor and stay younger. Prevention, Aug2001; 53(8)
Whelan CM & McKenna PH Urologic applications of biofeedback therapy; current data support the use of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle retraining as a first-line, conservative approach in children and adults with incontinence and pelvic floor disorders. Contemporary Urology Oct 2004; v16 i10 p23(8).
Wu JM & others Forecasting the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders in U.S. Women: 2010 to 2050. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;114(6):1278-83.
Agur WI & others The long-term effectiveness of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training: eight-year follow up of a randomised controlled trial.BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):985-90