Research Papers referred to on Pelvic Floor Exercise | Pelvic Floor Exercise
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Research Papers referred to on Pelvic Floor Exercise

The research papers listed below are referred to in the information on this site:

Agur WI & others
 The long-term effectiveness of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training: eight-year follow up of a randomised controlled trial.
BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):985-90

Aksac B & others 
Biofeedback and pelvic floor exercises for the rehabilitation of urinary stress incontinence.
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2003;56(1):23-7. Epub 2003 Jul 14.

Altman D & others 
Risk of urinary incontinence after childbirth: a 10-year prospective cohort study.
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct; 108(4):873-8

Anderson RU1, Harvey RH, Wise D, Nevin Smith J, Nathanson BH, Sawyer T Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015 Mar;40(1):45-52. doi: 10.1007/s10484-015-9273-1.

Appell RA
 Electrical stimulation for the treatment of urinary incontinence.
Urology. 1998 Feb;51(2A Suppl):24-6.

Arvonen T & others
 Effectiveness of two conservative modes of physical therapy in women with urinary stress incontinence.
Neurourol Urodyn. 2001;20(5):591-9.  

Aukee P & others
 The effect of home biofeedback training on stress incontinence.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Oct;83(10):973-7.

Beji NK & others
 The effect of pelvic floor training on sexual function of treated patients.
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2003 Oct;14(4):234-8; discussion 238. Epub 2003 Aug 27.

Bo K & others  Randomized controlled trial on the effect of pelvic floor muscle training on quality of life and sexual problems in genuine stress incontinent women.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 Jul;79(7):598-603

Bo, K. Can pelvic floor muscle training prevent and treat pelvic organ prolapse?).  Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(3):263-8.

Bø, Kari 
 Urinary Incontinence, Pelvic Floor Dysfunction, Exercise and Sport. Sports ed. 2004; 34(7): 451-64.

Bo, K. and others 
Effect of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training on labor and birth. Obstet Gynaecol. 2009 Jun; 113(6): 1279-84.

Brækken IH and others Pelvic floor muscle training reverse pelvic organ prolapse and reduce prolapse symptoms? An assessor-blinded, randomized, controlled trial. 
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Brown WJ & Miller YD.
 Too wet to exercise? Leaking urine as a barrier to physical activity in women. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2002;4(4):373-378

Bump RC & others
 Assessment of Kegel pelvic muscle exercise performance after brief verbal instruction.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Aug;165(2):322-7

Chiarelli P & Brown W.
 Leaking urine in Australian women: prevalence and associated conditions. Women and Health. 1999;29(1):1-12

Chiarioni G, Nardo A, Vantini I, Romito A, Whitehead WE.
 Biofeedback is superior to electrogalvanic stimulation and massage for treatment of levator ani syndrome. 
Gastroenterology. 2010 Apr;138(4):1321-9. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

de Bernardes NO and others
 Use of intravaginal electrical stimulation for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain: a randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial.
J Reprod Med. 2010 Jan-Feb;55(1-2):19-24.

Delgado D & Drake M
 A randomised controlled trial of the PelvicToner Device in female stress urinary incontinence
British Journal of Urology International. Jan 2010

Dornan P 
Incontinence-an aggressive approach to treatment: a case series
J Sci Med Sport. 2005 Dec;8(4):458-62

Dumoulin C & Hay-Smith J
 Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women. Cochrane Database Sys Revi 2010 Jan 20;(1) CD005654

Eyjólfsdóttir H, Ragnarsdóttir M, Geirsson G.
 [Pelvic floor muscle training with and without functional electrical stimulation as treatment for stress urinary incontinence] [Article in Icelandic]
Laeknabladid. 2009 Sep;95(9):575-80; quiz 581.

Farrell SA & others
 Parturition and urinary incontinence in primiparas.
Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Mar;97(3):350-6

Glavind K.
 Conservative treatment of stress incontinence with Geisha balls. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2001;12(4):223-4; discussion 224-5    

Grodstein F & others
 Association of age, race, and obstetric history with urinary symptoms among women in the Nurses' Health Study.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Aug;189(2):428-34

Handa VL and others 
 Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders.
Obstet Gynecol. 2008 May;111(5):1045-52

Hay-Smith EJC & others 
Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women.
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 1.

Jonasson A & othersTesting and training of the pelvic floor muscles after childbirth.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1989;68(4):301-4.

Latthe PM & others
 Nonsurgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI): grading of evidence in systematic reviews.
BJOG. 2008 Mar;115(4):435-44.

Lee IS & others Pelvic floor muscle exercise by biofeedback and electrical stimulation to reinforce the pelvic floor muscle after normal delivery.
Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi. 2006 Dec;36(8):1374-80.

Lowenstein L and others 
Can stronger pelvic muscle floor improve sexual function? 
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2010 May;21(5):553-6. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

MacInnes CL
 Why women leave therapy for stress incontinence.
Nurs Times. 2008 Oct 14-20;104(41):50-3.

Mariotti, G & others
 Early recovery of urinary continence after radical prostatectomy using early pelvic floor electrical stimulation and biofeedback associated treatment.
Journal of Urology, 2009 April:  

Moen MD & others
 Pelvic floor muscle function in women presenting with pelvic floor disorders 
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2009 Jul;20(7):843-6. Epub 2009 Mar 10.

Moore KN & others 
Return to continence after radical retropubic prostatectomy: a randomized trial of verbal and written instructions versus therapist-directed pelvic floor muscle therapy.
Urology. 2008 Dec;72(6):1280-6.

Moreno AL & others Urodynamic alterations after pelvic floor exercises for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women.
Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2004;31(3):194-6.

Morkved S & others
 Effect of postpartum pelvic floor muscle training in prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence: a one-year follow up.
  British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Aug 2000

Murina F & others
 The use of amielle vaginal trainers as adjuvant in the treatment of vestibulodynia: an observational multicentric study.
 Medscape J Med. 2008 Jan 30;10(1):23.

Nygaard I & others Prevalence of Symptomatic Pelvic Floor Disorders in US Women JAMA, 2008; 300 (11):1311-1316.

Pager CK & others  
Long-term outcomes of pelvic floor exercise and biofeedback treatment for patients with fecal incontinence. Dis Colon Rectum. 2002 Aug;45(8):997-1003.

Parkkinen A & others Physiotherapy for female stress urinary incontinence: individual therapy at theoutpatient clinic versus home-based pelvic floor training: a 5-year follow-upstudy. 
Neurourol Urodyn. 2004;23(7):643-8.

Persson J & others
 Obstetric risk factors for stress urinary incontinence: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Sep;96(3):440-5.

Pitts MK & others 
Prevalence and correlates of three types of pelvic pain in a nationally representative sample of Australian women.
 Med J Aust. 2008 Aug 4;189(3):138-43

Rortveit G & others
 Urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery or cesarean section.
 N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 6;348(10):900-7

Salvesen KA & others Randomised controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training during pregnancy. BMJ. 2004 Aug 14;329(7462):378-80. Epub 2004 Jul 14.

Sampselle CM & others
 Effect of pelvic muscle exercise on transient incontinence during pregnancy and after birth.
 Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;91(3):406-12.

Sand PK & others Pelvic floor electrical stimulation in the treatment of genuine stress incontinence: a multicenter, placebo-controlled trial.
 Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jul;173(1):72-9.

Sapsford RR, Richardson CA, Maher CF, Hodges PW 
Pelvic floor muscle activity in different sitting postures in continent and incontinent women. 
Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2008 Sep;89(9):1741-7.

Sarma S, Ying T, Moore KH.
 Long-term vaginal ring pessary use: discontinuation rates and adverse events.
BJOG. 2009 Dec;116(13):1715-21.

Schytt E & others 
Symptoms of stress incontinence 1 year after childbirth: prevalence and predictors in a national Swedish sample. 
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004 Oct;83(10):928-36.

Seo JT & others 
A randomized prospective study comparing new vaginal cone and FES-Biofeedback. 
Yonsei Med J. 2004 Oct 31;45(5):879-84

Sloots K, Bartlett L. 
 Practical strategies for treating postsurgical bowel dysfunction. 
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2009 Sep-Oct;36(5):522-7.

Smith DB & othersA self-directed home biofeedback system for women with symptoms of stress, urge,and mixed incontinence. 
J Wound Ostomy Continence Nurs. 2000 Jul;27(4):240-6.

Smith KM & othersAmielle vaginal trainers-a patient evaluation.
J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998 Mar;18(2):146-7.

Snider T
 Pelvic floor training, re-education relieves CPPS. 
Urology Times Oct 2000, Vol. 28 Issue 10, p30

Talasz H and others
 Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle function in a random group of adult women in Austria.
 In Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008 Jan; 19(1): 131-5

Viktrup L 
The risk of lower urinary tract symptoms five years after the first delivery.
 Neurourol Urodynamics 2002 ;21(1): 2-29

Viktrup L & others [Urinary incontinence during 12 years after delivery] [Article in Danish]
 Ugeskr Laeger. 2009 Oct 19;171(43):3073-7.

Walsh T & others 
Don't hide! Fix this floor and stay younger.
 Prevention, Aug2001; 53(8)

Whelan CM & McKenna PH
 Urologic applications of biofeedback therapy; current data support the use of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle retraining as a first-line, conservative approach in children and adults with incontinence and pelvic floor disorders.
Contemporary Urology Oct 2004; v16 i10 p23(8).

Wu JM & others 
Forecasting the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders in U.S. Women: 2010 to 2050.
Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;114(6):1278-83.

Agur WI & others The long-term effectiveness of antenatal pelvic floor muscle training: eight-year follow up of a randomised controlled trial.BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):985-90





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